Thu, Apr 27, 2017

You Can't Stand The Truth

1 Kings 22:1-16

“You Can’t Stand the Truth!”

1 Kings 22:1  Now three years passed without war between Syria and Israel.

·      Rawlinson conjectures that it was during this period that the Assyrian invasion, under Shalmaneser II., took place. The Black Obelisk tells us that Ahab of Jezreel joined a league of kings, of whom Ben-hadad was one, against the Assyrians, furnishing a force of 10,000 footmen and 2000 chariots. The common danger might well compel a cessation of hostilities between Syria and Israel.   [1]


Ahab’s Alliance:

The Kurkh Monolith

·      In 1861 archeologists discovered a 7.2’ stele recording the first six years of the reign of Assyrian King Shalmaneser III (859-824 BC).[1]  The stele is dated to 853 BC, and describes Shalmaneser’s campaigns in western Mesopotamia and Syria.  At the end of the stele, however, it gives an account of the Battle of Qarqar.

o   Twelve kings allied themselves together against Shalmaneser at the Syrian city of Qarqar, one of whom was King Ahab of Israel.  The relevant portion of the stele says, “I approached the city of Qarqar. I razed, destroyed and burned the city of Qarqar , his royal city. 1,200 chariots, 1,200 cavalry, and 20,000 troops of Hadad-ezer of Damascus; 700 chariots, 700 cavalry, 10,000 troops of Irhuleni, the Hamathite; 2,000 chariots, and 10,000 troops of Ahab, the Israelite; 500 troops of Byblos; 1,000 troops of Egypt; 10 chariots and 10,000 troops of the land of Irqanatu; 200 troops of Matinu-ba’al of the city of Arvad; 200 troops of the land of Usanatu; 30 chariots and X,000 troops of Adon-ba’al of the land of Shianu, 1,000 camels of Gindibu of Arabia; X hundred troops of Ba’asa, the man of Bit ruhubi, the Ammonite–these twelve kings he took as his allies.”

·      Significance:

o   While this event is not described in the Bible, the Kurkh Monolith confirms the existence and reign of King Ahab.   [2]



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Jehu’s Alliance:

The Black Obelisk

·      In 1846 archaeologists discovered a black basalt, four-sided obelisk measuring 6’5” in Kalhu, Iraq (modern Nimrud).  This was the site of the ancient Assyrian capital.  The obelisk was erected as a public monument in 825 BC, glorifying Shalmaneser III’s (858-824 BC) military exploits over a period of 31 years.  It contains a mixture of reliefs and inscriptions recording the conquests of Assyrian King Shalmaneser III.  There are a total of 20 reliefs: five per side. 

o   Five different kings are pictured paying tribute to Shalmaneser:
(1) Sua of Gilzanu;
(2) ruler of Musri;
(3) Marduk-apil-usur of Suhi;
(4) Qalparunda of Patin. 
(5) The fifth king is none other than King Jehu of Israel, who paid tribute to Shalmaneser in ~841 BC, approximately 10 years before Jehu’s reign endedThe inscription connected to the relief of Jehu reads, “The tribute of Jehu, son of Omri: I received from him silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden vase with pointed bottom, golden tumblers, golden buckets, tin, a staff for a king [and] spears.” 

·      This event is not recorded in the Bible.  Indeed, the Bible does not record any of Jehu’s foreign affairs except for a brief comment that the Syrian king, Hazael, was taking away territory on the eastern border (2 Kings 10:32-33).     [4]




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1 Kings 22:1–16

1 Now three years passed without war between Syria and Israel.

2 Then it came to pass, in the third year, that Jehoshaphat (yeh·ho·shaw·fawt;  “Jehovah has judged”)  the king of Judah went down to visit the king of Israel.

·      Jerusalem is south of Samaria

o   “Went down . . .”

o   Surely denotes a spiritual descent


3 And the king of Israel (Ahab) said to his servants, “Do you know that Ramoth in Gilead is ours, but we hesitate to take it out of the hand of the king of Syria?”

4 So he said to Jehoshaphat, “Will you go with me to fight at Ramoth Gilead?” Jehoshaphat said to the king of Israel, “I am as you are, my people as your people, my horses as your horses.”

·      A strange alliance – believer King to pagan unbeliever King

·      Nationality is very strong in Israel.


These next two verses show just how far apart these two Kings were spiritually:

5 Also Jehoshaphat said to the king of Israel, “Please inquire for the word of the Lord (Yâhovah; Yahweh) today.”

6 Then the king of Israel gathered the prophets together, about four hundred men, and said to them, “Shall I go against Ramoth Gilead to fight, or shall I refrain?” So they said, “Go up, for the Lord (Adonai) will deliver it into the hand of the king.”

·     Ahab rejected the truth of the Lord – so He gave him lies.

·      Leftover Prophets of Jezebel that weren’t slaughtered by Elijah on Mt. Carmel?

o   From the number (cf. ch. 18:19) it has been concluded that these were “the prophets of the groves,” i.e., of Astarte, who escaped the massacre of the Baal prophets (ch. 18:40).    [5]

o   “No ancient people considered any cultus complete without a class of men through whom the god might be questioned” (Bähr).  [6]

·      Differences in Vvs 5-6

o   Vs 5:   3068 יהוה, יְהוִה [Yâhovah /yeh·ho·vaw/] n pr dei. From 1961; TWOT 484a; GK 3378; 6519 occurrences; AV translates as “LORD” 6510 times, “GOD” four times, “JEHOVAH” four times, and “variant” once.
1 the proper name of the one true God.
1a unpronounced except with the vowel pointings of 0136.
          Additional Information: Jehovah = “the existing One”. 

o   Vs.6:     136 אֲדֹנָי [ʾAdonai /ad·o·noy/] n m. Am emphatic form of 113; TWOT 27b; GK 151; 434 occurrences; AV translates as “Lord” 431 times, “lord” twice, and “God” once.
1 my lord, lord.
1a of men.
1b of God.
2 Lord—title, spoken in place of Yahweh in Jewish display of reverence.    [8]

o  The difference makes all the difference – Jehoshaphat noticed the change in the language!


7 And Jehoshaphat said, “Is there not still a prophet of the Lord here, that we may inquire of Him?”

·      Godly men always want to know what the only One and True God has to say.

o   They don’t care what other counselors say – only what God says.

·      Perhaps Jehoshaphat knew of Elijah, Elisha, and the school of the Prophets?


8 So the king of Israel said to Jehoshaphat, “There is still one man, Micaiah (me·kaw·yeh·hoo;  Who is like Jehovah?”) the son of Imlah (yeem·law;  “whom God will fill up”), by whom we may inquire of the Lord; but I hate him, because he does not prophesy good concerning me, but evil.”

And Jehoshaphat said, “Let not the king say such things!”

·      Is it possible to hate God because He doesn’t give you what you want?

o   Because bad things happen to good people?

·      You will be hated because you represent the King of the Universe.

o   You do what he wants you to do because you now know no other way.


9 Then the king of Israel called an officer and said, “Bring Micaiah the son of Imlah quickly!”

10 The king of Israel and Jehoshaphat the king of Judah, having put on their robes, sat each on his throne, at a threshing floor at the entrance of the gate of Samaria; and all the prophets prophesied before them.

11 Now Zedekiah (tsid·kee·yaw;  “Jehovah is always true”) the son of Chenaanah (ken·ah·an·aw;  “trader”) had made horns of iron for himself; and he said, “Thus says the Lord: ‘With these you shall gore the Syrians until they are destroyed.’ ”

12 And all the prophets prophesied so, saying, “Go up to Ramoth Gilead and prosper, for the Lord will deliver it into the king’s hand.”

·      Really?  One guy even made horns for himself?

o  How far can a delusion go?

·      Was Jehoshaphat annoyed by these prostitutes?

o  Would you have enough discernment and courage to stand up and yell, “NO – this is not of the Lord!”



·      The Bible predicts a dreadful fate for liars. For instance, while banished on the island of Patmos, the Apostle John saw that "all liars shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death"
(Revelation 21:8). Similarly, the beloved disciple writes, liars are doomed to an eternity outside of God’s presence (Revelation 22:15).
Because Satan is the father of lies (John 8:44), lying is an extremely serious sin.[9]


·      We later discover that these false prophets were compelled by a “lying Spirit”

1 Kings 22:23  Therefore look! The Lord has put a lying spirit in the mouth of all these prophets of yours, and the Lord has declared disaster against you.”


o   3068 יהוה, יְהוִה [Yâhovah /yeh·ho·vaw/] n pr dei. From 1961; TWOT 484a; GK 3378; 6519 occurrences; AV translates as “LORD” 6510 times, “GOD” four times, “JEHOVAH” four times, and “variant” once.
1 the proper name of the one true God.
1a unpronounced except with the vowel pointings of 0136.
          Additional Information: Jehovah = “the existing One”. 


13 Then the messenger who had gone to call Micaiah spoke to him, saying, “Now listen, the words of the prophets with one accord encourage the king. Please, let your word be like the word of one of them, and speak encouragement.”

·      Don‘t break from the Script we’ve given you!

o  Don’t rain on Ahab’s parade!


14 And Micaiah said, “As the Lord lives, whatever the Lord says to me, that I will speak.”

15 Then he came to the king; and the king said to him, “Micaiah, shall we go to war against Ramoth Gilead, or shall we refrain?” And he answered him, “Go and prosper, for the Lord will deliver it into the hand of the king!”

16 So Ahab the king said to him, “How many times shall I make you swear that you tell me nothing but the truth in the name of the Lord?”

You can’t stand the truth!

·      Not everyone really wants the truth about their lives before the Lord

·      What if the Lord put your life on the video screens this morning?



Further information on the Name Yahweh:

S3068, 3069, 3070, 3071, 3072, 3073, 3074 TWOT484a GK3378 6823 i.e. יַהְוֶה Yahweh, the proper name of the God of Israel—( 1. MT יְהוָֹה6518 (Qr אֲדֹנָי), or יֱהוִֹה305 (Qr אֱלֹהִים), in the combinations אדני יהוה & יהוה אדני (vid. אֲדֹנָי), and with prep. בַּיהוָֹה, לַיהוָֹה, מֵיהוָֹה (Qr בַּאדֹנָי, לַאדֹנָי, מֵאדֹנָי), do not give the original form. 𝔊 and other Vrss follow the Qr. On the basis of Ex 20:7; Lv 24:11 יהוה was regarded as a nomen ineffabile (vid. Philo de Vita Mosis iii, 519, 529), called by the Jews הַשֵּׁם and by the Samaritans שׁימא. The pronunciation Jehovah was unknown until 1520, when it was introduced by Galatinus; but it was contested by Le Mercier, J. Drusius, and L. Capellus, as against grammatical and historical propriety (cf. Bö 88). The traditional Ἰαβέ of Theodoret and Epiphanius, the ־יָהוּ, יְהוֹ־ of compound and the contracted form יָהּ, all favour יַהְוֶה (cf. יַהֲלֹמ֑וּן ψ 74:6; תַּהֲרוּ Is 33:11), v. Lag. i. 14 Baudissin i. 179 ff.; Dr i. 1 ff. For Jeve v. Sta 1881, 346 De ib. 1882, 173 f. & Gn. Excurs. ii. 2. on liter. of interpret. v. Nes 67 Dr.—Many recent scholars explain יַהְוֶה as Hiph. of הוה ( = היה) the one bringing into being, life-giver (cf. הַוָּה Gn 3:20) Schr HSch; giver of existence, creator, Kue Tiele; he who brings to pass (so already Le Clerc), performer of his promises, Lag, Nes. 88 (but Nes. 91 inclines to Qal as RSBrit. & For. Ev. Rev. v. infr.); or from הוה he who causes to fall, rain or lightning RS ed. 1, 423; om. ed. 2, 245, cf. We iii. 175; ‘Fäller,’ destroying foes, Sta. i. 429 (dubiously). But most take it as Qal of היה ( = היה); the one who is: i.e. the absolute and unchangeable one, Ri; the existing, ever-living, as self-consistent and unchangeable, Di; or the one ever coming into manifestation as the God of redemption, De Oehl; cf. also RSBrit. & For. Ev. Rev. 1876, he will be it, i.e. all that his servants look for (cf. Ew), he will approve himself (give evidence of being, assert his being Dr 17)). theories of non-Heb. or non-Sem. origin. opposed (in their older forms) by Bau i. 181 ff. ( especially 230); Dl 162 ff. claimed Bab. origin for יהו, against this KueNational religions, etc., Note iv ( 329 ff.) Jastr xiii (1894), 103 f. cf. Hpt i. 170 N; Dl Babel u. Bibel, 46 f., 73 f. makes same claim for יהוה, agst. this v. especially Hirsch xxiii (1903), 355 ff. Zim 3, 465 ff.; Spiegelberg liii (1899), 633 ff. proposes (improb.) Egyptian etymol. for יהוה; further discussions see in Kö Names, § 112 and  3. ‘Jehovah’ found in Jacob (? Johann.) Wessel († 1480), according to Schwally, 1905, col. 612.

I. יהוה is not used by E in Gn, but is given Ex 3:12–15 as the name of the God who revealed Himself to Moses at Horeb, and is explained thus: אֶהְיֶה עִמָּ֑ךְ I shall be with thee (v 12), which is then implied in אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה I shall be the one who will be it v 14a (i.e. with thee v 12) and then compressed into אֶהְיֶה v 14b (i.e. with thee v 12), which then is given in the nominal form יהוה He who will be it v 15 (i.e. with thee v 12). Cf. Ew ii. 337, 338 RS, Proph. 385 ff. Other interpretations are: I am he who I am, i.e. it is no concern of yours (Le Clerc LagPsalt. Hieron. 156); I am, (this is my name), inasmuch as I am (אֲשֶׁר = כִּי; AE JDMich WeJD  xxi, 540   . 72); Di al. I am who I am, he who is essentially unnameable, inexplicable.—E uses יהוה sparingly by the side of אלהים and האלהים in his subsequent narrative. The Ephraimitic writers in Ju S K use it in similar proportions. P abstains from the use of יהוה until he gives an account of its revelation to Moses Ex 6:3; but subsequently uses it freely. He gives no explanation of its meaning. He represents that אֵל שַׁדַּי was the God of the patriarchs. J uses יהוה from the beginning of his narrative, possibly explaining it, Gn 21:33 by אל עולם, the evergreen tamarisk being a symbol of the ever-living God; cf. De Gn 21:33. Elsewhere יהוה is the common divine name in pre-exilic writers, but in post-exilic writers gradually falls into disuse, and is supplanted by אלהים and אדני. In Job it is used 31 times in prose parts, and 12:9 (a proverb); not elsewhere in the poem. Chr apart from his sources prefers אלהים and האלהים. Dn uses יהוה only in chap. 9 (7 times); Ec not at all. In the Elohistic group of ψ 42–83 it is used 39 times (see אלהים). It occurs as the name of Israel’s God MI 18. It is doubtful whether it was used by other branches of the Shemitic family, cf. COT Gn 2:4b Dl 158 ff. Dr i. 7 ff.

II. 1. יהוה is used with אלהים with or without suffs., especially in D; a. with אֱלֹהֶיךָ in the Ten Words Ex 20:2–12 (5 times) = Dt 5:6–16; in the law of worship of JE, Ex 23:19; 34:24, 26; in D 234 times; Jos 1:9, 17; 9:9, 24 (D2); elsewhere Gn 27:20 Ex 15:26 (JE), Ju 6:26; S & K 20 times 1 Ch 11:2; 22:11, 12 2 Ch 9:8(); 16:7; Is 7:11; 37:4(); 41:13; 43:3; 51:15; 55:5; Je 40:2 + (3 times) Ho 12:10; 13:4; 14:2; Am 9:15; ψ 81:11. b. with אֱלֹהֵיכֶם in D 46 times; D2 28 times; H 15 times; P 15 times; elsewhere Ex 23:25 (E); 8:24; 10:8, 16, 17 (JE); Ju 6:10; 1 S 12:12, 14; 2 K 17:39; 23:21; 1 Ch 22:18 + (10 times Chr) ψ 76:12; Je 13:16; + (5 times) Ez 20:5, 7, 19, 20; Jo 2:13 + (6 times) Zc 6:15. c. with אֱלֹהֵינוּ in D 23 times; in D2 5 times; Ex 8:6 (JE) Ex 3:18; 5:3; 8:22, 23; 10:25, 26 (E) Ju 11:24; 1 S 7:8; 1 K 8:57, 59, 61, 65 2 K 18:22; 19:19 = Is 36:7; 37:20, 1 Ch 13:2 + (15 times Chr) Mi 4:5; 7:17; Is 26:13; Je 3:22 + (17 times) ψ 20:8; 90:17 (?; Baer אֲדֹנָי) 94:23; 99:5, 8, 9(); 105:7; 106:47; 113:5; 122:9; 123:2 Dn 9:10, 13, 14. d. c. אֱלֹהֵיהֶם Ex 10:7 (J) Ex 29:46() Lv 26:44 (P) Ju 3:7; 8:34; 1 S 12:9; 1 K 9:9; 2 K 17:7, 9, 14, 16, 19; 18:12 2 Ch 31:6; 33:17; 34:33; Ne 9:3(), 4; Je 3:21; 22:9; 30:9; 43:1() 50:4; Ez 28:26; 34:30; 39:22, 28 Ho 1:7; 3:5; 7:10; Zp 2:7; Hag 1:12() Zc 9:16; 10:6. e. with אֱלֹהָיו Nu 23:21 (E) Ex 32:11 (J) Lv 4:22 (P) Dt 17:19; 18:7; 1 S 30:6; 1 K 5:17; 11:4; 15:3, 4; 2 K 5:11; 16:2; 2 Ch 1:1; + 13 times Chr; Mi 5:3; Je 7:28; ψ 33:12; 144:15; 146:5; Jon 2:2. f. with אֱלֹהַי Nu 22:18 (JE) Dt 4:5; 18:16; 26:14; Jos 14:8, 9; 2 S 24:24; 1 K 3:7; 5:18, 19; 8:28; 17:20, 21; 1 Ch 21:17; 22:7; 2 Ch 2:3; 6:19; Ezr 7:28; 9:5; ψ 7:2, 4; 13:4; 18:29; 30:3, 13; 35:24; 40:6; 104:1; 109:26; Is 25:1; Je 31:18; Dn 9:4, 20; Jon 2:7; Hab 1:12; Zc 11:4; 13:9; 14:5. g. with אֱלֹהַיִךְ Is 60:9 Je 2:17, 19; 3:13; Mi 7:10; Zp 3:17. h. with אלהים, probably always due to later editors, or to a Qr which has crept into the text Gn 2:4b—3:23 (J, 20 times either אלהים inserted by R as Di De; or יהוה inserted by J in an older source); Ex 9:30 (J, but not in 𝔊 Sam.; Sam. אדני יהוה; possibly MT from earlier Qr, & Sam. from later Qr); 2 S 7:22, 25 (𝔊 אדני יהוה and 1 Ch 17:20–23 only יהוה); 1 Ch 17:16, 17 (but 2 S 7:18, 19 אדני יהוה) 1 Ch 28:20; 29:1; 2 Ch 1:9; 6:41(), 42; 26:18 (but in the original ψ 132:8 stood יהוה (so ), or else no divine name); ψ 72:18 (the late doxology) 84:12 (but it makes the line too long); Jon 4:6. For the combinations with other divine names see those names. 2. the phrase †אֲנִי יהוה is noteworthy:—a. after אמר either alone Ex 6:2, 29 (P) or before relative and other clauses: Gn 28:13 (J) 15:7 (R) Ex 6:6 (P) with אלהיכם Ju 6:10; Ez 20:5. b. after ידע כי (α) Ex 7:17; 8:18; 10:2 (J); Ex 7:5; 14:4, 18 (P); 1 K 20:13, 28; Je 24:7 Ez 6:7 + 4:8 times Ez; (β) with אלהיכם Ex 6:7; 16:12; Dt 29:5 (P) Ez 20:20; Jo 4:17; (γ) with אלהיהם Ex 29:46 (P) Ez 28:26; 34:30; 39:22, 28; (δ) before relative and other clauses Is 45:3; 49:23, 26; 60:16 Ez 7:9; 17:24; 21:10; 22:22; 35:12; 36:36; (ε) with various forms of קדשׁ Ex 31:13 (P) Ez 20:12; 37:28; 39:7; (ζ) with דברתי Ez 5:13; 17:21, cf. יֵדְעוּ אשׁר אני י׳ Ez 20:26. c. after כִּי in various combinations Lv 11:44, 45; Nu 35:34 (P), Lv 20:7, 26; 21:8, 15, 23; 22:16; 24:22; 25:17; 26:1, 44 (all H); Ex 15:26 (R) Is 41:13; 43:3; 61:8; Je 9:23; Ez 12:25; 21:4 Zc 10:6; Mal 3:6. d. emphatic Ex 6:8; 12:12 Lv 26:2, 45; Nu 3:13, 41, 45 (all P); Lv 18:5, 6, 21; 19:12, 14, 16, 18, 28, 30, 32, 37; 21:12; 22:2, 3, 8, 30, 31, 33 (all H) Is 43:15; with אלהיהם Ex 29:46; with אלהיךָ Is 48:17; with אלהיכם Lv 23:43; 25:38, 55; Nu 10:10; 15:41() (P) Lv 18:2, 4, 30; 19:2, 3, 4, 10, 25, 31, 34, 36; 20:24; 23:22; 26:13 (all H) Ez 20:7, 19 Jo 2:27; with מְקַדֵּשׁ Lv 20:8; 22:9, 32 (H), with דברתי Nu 14:35 (P) Ez 5:15 + (11 times Ez); with clauses Is 27:3; 41:4, 17; 42:6, 8; 45:5, 6, 7, 8, 18, 19, 21; 60:22 Je 17:10; 32:27; Ez 14:4, 7, 9; 34:24; †אָנֹכִי יהוה is used in the Ten Words Ex 20:2, 5 = Dt 5:6, 9 cited ψ 81:11 Ho 12:10; 13:4; elsewhere only Ex 4:11 (J) Is 43:11; 44:24; 51:15. 3. יהוה is also used with several predicates, to form sacred names of holy places of Yahweh יהוה יראה Gn 22:14 (J); יהוה נסי Ex 17:15 (E) יהוה שׁלום Ju 6:24 יהוה צדקנו Je 33:16 (cf. 23:6 where it is applied to the Messiah); יהוה שָׁ֑מָּה Ez 48:35.—On combinations such as הַר י׳, י׳ צְבָאוֹת etc., v. הַר, צָבָא, etc.

Note.—Bonk 1891, 126 ff. seems to shew that as prefix, in comp., יְהוֹ is the oldest and the latest form and that יוֹ is intermediate, belonging to the earlier post-exilic period until the time of Chr; occasional copyists’ mistakes being taken into the account.   [11]


[1] H. D. M. Spence-Jones, ed., 1 Kings, The Pulpit Commentary (London; New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1909), 531.




[5] H. D. M. Spence-Jones, ed., 1 Kings, The Pulpit Commentary (London; New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1909), 532.

[6] H. D. M. Spence-Jones, ed., 1 Kings, The Pulpit Commentary (London; New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1909), 532.

[7] James Strong, Enhanced Strong’s Lexicon (Woodside Bible Fellowship, 1995).

[8] James Strong, Enhanced Strong’s Lexicon (Woodside Bible Fellowship, 1995).


[10] James Strong, Enhanced Strong’s Lexicon (Woodside Bible Fellowship, 1995).

[11] Francis Brown, Samuel Rolles Driver, and Charles Augustus Briggs, Enhanced Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977), 217–219.

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